Biodiversity    Introduction to Life Science, 1 April 2014
Winslow, following Primack, Ch. 2-3, pp. 23-36, 48-49, 54-70
Components of diversity
     Genetic diversity
     Species diversity
          Species concepts—morphological, biological, phylogenetic
          Dog varieties
          Speciation, adaptive radiation
                Minimum area for speciation
          Measuring diversity depends on spatial scale
               Alpha, beta, gamma
     Ecosystem diversity
          Keystone species & extinction cascades
          Keystone resources
               Salt licks, mineral pools, deep pools, tree hollows, rotting wood
           Ecosystem dynamics, integrity, health, stability, resistance, resilience
Diverse ecosystems
     Tropical rainforests
     Coral reefs
     Factors affecting diversity
          Climate, topography, geology, habitat size, biodiversity hotspots
     Why are there so many species in the tropics?
          Solar radiation
          Large geographical area
          Temperature & humidity
          Predictability & species interactions
How many species?
     Described & undescribed species
     Insects, microbes
     “New” species & higher taxa
          Phylum Cycliophora
     “New” communities
          Forest canopies
                Endosymbiotic fungi
          Deep sea
               Hydrothermal vents, oil plumes
     Collecting & counting, estimating number of species
          Insecticidal fog
          Underrepresented species
          Need for taxonomists