Charlie Winslow's garden in Indianapolis

Scientific method

     Observation of patterns
     Develop hypotheses (inductive reasoning)
     Derive predictions from hypotheses (deductive reasoning)
     Design study to test hypotheses
          Controlled experiment
               Manipulate system & observe response
               Treatment & control groups
     Implement study
     Interpret results of study
          verification and falsification
     Refine hypothesis or develop new hypothesis

Example with chicken manure and tomatoes

A theory is a general conceptual framework that provides mechanistic explanations for a broad range of phenomena, generating successful predictions in diverse contexts.